DOS vs Windows

The followings are the points to discuss the difference between DOS and Windows and also why windows is preferable over DOS regarding GUI based interaction.

  1. DOS is text/console based OS. Windows is GUI based OS. DOS shell is command user interface or CLI, Windows provides graphical user interface GUI.
  2. DOS application does not obey any standard user navigation and user interaction protocol. Windows defines a set of standard widgets like menues, dialogs, windows, buttons, textboxes etc. which are common to all GUI based OS.
  3. DOS is single tasking OS. Windows is multitasking OS. User has flexibility to run more than one application at a time and can work simultaneously.
  4. DOS is based on 8086 16bit processor which can access upto 20bit of addess which is 1MB max. Windows is based on 386 32bit processor and can access 32bit which is 4GB or for 64bit this limit is even beyond.

MS DOS vs MS Windows


DOS works in 80x25 text-based console and the user interacts with the operating system by means of some commands. DOS has basic commands like dir, cd, type, move, del, deltree, edit, fdisk, sys, etc to manage files and folders. Basic text files can be managed. Multimedia and formatted documents cannot be used. DOS can switch video mode to VGA (640x480) and can run different DOS games.


Windows works in graphical mode and the user interacts with the operating system via GUI elements. Windows being GUI based operating system has numerous advantages.

Windows desktop

The screen size is 1024x768 and larger so more information can be displayed at any point in time. It is easy to interact with files and folders with a mouse. Very little keyboard interactions are required to manage files and folders. Graphical and multimedia files like pictures, animation, audio, and video files can be seen or edited only in Windows. Formatted rich-edit text documents, presentations, etc can be viewed and edited. Windows can run a wide variety of games with direct rendering and DirectX interface of the graphics.

User interaction

DOS application does have any standard for text-based menu navigations and interactions.

Windows GUI

Graphical interfacing in Windows follows standard GUI design. A set of standard widgets like menus, dialogs, windows, buttons, textboxes, etc. are used in Windows which are common to all GUI-based OS.


DOS can use only the default core 0 of the CPU and the operating system is single-tasking. DOS cannot have multitasking capability.

Multitasking CPUs in Windows

Windows can enable multitasking facility in single-core CPU. It can even access multicore cores for multitasking. The user has the flexibility to run one application in the foreground and numerous tasks in the background. User can switch between different tasks and can interact as needed.

Resource and Memory

DOS is based on x86 16bit processor architecture which can access up to 20bit of address which is 1MB maximum range.

Windows memory usage

Windows is based on 386 32bit processor and can access 32bit which is 4GB or more using a physical address extension(36bits) up to 16GB. Windows 64bit has a maximum memory limit of several TBs.

Summary DOS vs Windows

Command line user interface (CLI)Graphical User Interface
User interaction not standard User interaction is unified for all GUI based OS
Single TaskingMultitasking
Based on 8086, 16bit OS, can access upto 1MBBased on 80386, 32bit OS, can access upto 4GB for 32bit

Windows graphical user interface (GUI) Advantages in Detail

Windows graphical user interface (GUI) is the medium through which the user interacts with a Windows computer or any electronic device that runs on Windows operating system. Users can interact with a Windows GUI using a mouse, keyboard, touch screen or even through voice commands depending on their device. Windows GUI is made up of icons, buttons, menus, windows and other graphical elements that users can click, drag, drop, type or speak to perform different tasks on their device.

Windows GUI has many advantages over other types of user interfaces, such as command-line interface (CLI) or text-based interface (TUI), that require users to type commands or codes to operate the device. Some of the advantages of Windows GUI are:

  • Easiness for non-technical people: Windows GUI is simple to use and understand for non-technical people or beginners. Users do not need prior computer knowledge or skills to operate a Windows device. They can just follow the visual cues and instructions on the screen to perform their desired tasks. For example, users can easily open a folder, view its contents, copy or delete files, launch applications, browse the internet, play games, listen to music and more by just clicking on the icons or buttons on the screen.
  • Convenience: Windows GUI is convenient for users as it allows them to perform multiple tasks on the same device without switching between different devices or interfaces. Users can also customize their Windows GUI according to their preferences and needs by changing the colors, fonts, sizes, shapes, layouts and themes of the graphical elements. Users can also create shortcuts, widgets and notifications on their Windows GUI to access their frequently used applications or information quickly and easily.
  • Instant results: Windows GUI provides instant feedback and results to the users when they interact with the graphical elements. Users can see the changes or effects of their actions right away on the screen without waiting for long processing time or complex calculations. For example, users can see the progress of their file transfer, download or installation on a progress bar or a pop-up window on their Windows GUI.
  • User-friendly: Windows GUI is user-friendly as it is designed to suit the needs and expectations of the users. Windows GUI follows the principles of user interface design, such as consistency, clarity, simplicity, familiarity and feedback, to make the users feel comfortable and confident while using the device. Windows GUI also provides help and support features, such as tooltips, guides, tutorials and online resources, to assist the users in case they encounter any problems or difficulties while using the device.
  • Disabled people: Windows GUI is accessible and inclusive for disabled people as it provides various features and options to accommodate their special needs and abilities. For example, Windows GUI offers speech recognition, text-to-speech, magnifier, narrator, high contrast mode, keyboard shortcuts and touch gestures for users who have visual, auditory or motor impairments. Windows GUI also supports assistive technologies, such as screen readers, braille displays and eye trackers, that enable disabled users to interact with the device more effectively.

In conclusion, Windows graphical user interface is an advantageous way of interacting with a Windows computer or any electronic device that runs on Windows operating system. It is easy, convenient, instant, user-friendly and accessible for all types of users.

About our authors: Team EQA

Further readings

What is Windows SDK? What is Windows Win32 API functions?
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Include windows.h, Define WinMain, Define WNDCLASS attributes, RegisterClass, CreateWindow, ShowWindow, UpdateWindow, GetMessage, DispatchMessage, DefWindowProc