Windows kernel or ntoskrnl.exe binary is the lowest level of Windows OS. Application / user layer starts from system call library named as ntdll.dll. This DLL implements the lowest level system call for Windows. Above it there are win32 DLLs. Major Win32 DLLs are kernel32.dll, user32.dll, gdi32.dll etc. These DLLs provides API wrappers to the application. These are very well known as Win32 API libraries. Above this layer programming language runtime libraries are residing. Like for example if application was written with VC++. The runtime will be msvcrt.dll. Finally above it application runs.
- Application: Application .EXE
- language runtime: msvcrt.dll
- Win32 DLLs: Kernel32.dll, User32.dll, Gdi32.dll
- System DLL: Ntdll.dll
- Windows OS: NtOsKrnl.EXE + hal.dll
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