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Overview:
Study of modern electronics starts with study of solid state physics of semiconductors. Before the discovery of semiconductors vacuum tube valves and triodes are used for basic components. High voltage operations, large component size and huge heat dissipation were major disadvantages of these components. Solid state semiconductor has revolutionized the electronics world. Component size has drastically reduces also the power consumption and operating voltage is low. Solid state physics deals with the study of n-p semiconductors, electron characteristics of semiconductors, drift, diffusion, mobility, recombination, continuity equation, Fermi-level, Energy density function, carrier concentration and its temperature dependence, P-N junction and derivation of Shockley Equation etc.

Diodes are the simplest active component. Diodes are constructed with s P-N junction. P side is called anode and N side is called cathode. When positive voltage is applied on anode, it is called forward bias of diode. When we do the opposite it is called reverse bias. Diode acts as a valve. It conducts current only in forward bias. Learn more detail of diode characteristics and internals of its operations.

The next and most important electronic component is transistor. It is the replacement of earlier triode. Transistors are contracted with either P-N-P or N-P-N junctions. The three legs of a transistor are collector, base and emitter. There are also field effect transistors JFET and metal oxide semiconductor field effect transistor MOSFET. After discussing almost all active components, we must approach for integration of different components. As the sizes of each component are exceptionally small we can now fabricate the whole circuit in a small area. In this section learn how integrated circuits are fabricated in large scale and how it has made reduces the size and price of complex electronic circuits.

Syllabus:
Elements of Electronic ballistics, Solid State Physics, Band gap, n-p semiconductors, drift, diffusion, mobility, recombination, continuity equation, Fermi-level, Energy density function, carrier concentration and its temperature dependence, P-N junction and derivation of Shockley Equation, Shockley diode, Principal of operation of BJT, steps for fabrication of BJT. Principal of operation of JFETs, pinch-off voltage, principal of operation of MOSFET, basic structure and properties of MOSFET. Introduction to Integrated circuit and fabrication.

Books and Links:
1) Semiconductor physics and Devices by Neamen (TMH)
2) Principles of semiconductor devices by Dimitrijev (oxford)
3) Integrated Electronics Analog and Digital Circuits and System
by Jacob Millman and Christos C Halkias
4) Microelectronics (2/e) by millman &Grabel (TMH)
5) Solid state Electronic Devices (5/e)- by Streetman &Banerjee (PHI)/Pearson Education
6) Electronic Devices and Circeits by Cathey (schaum services) (TMH)

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